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1949 Armistice Agreement Map

Morris, Benny. Israel`s Border Wars, 1949-1956: Arab infiltration, Israeli retaliation and countdown to the Suez War. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. On February 24, the Israeli-Egyptian ceasefire agreement was signed in Rhodes. [1] The main points of the ceasefire agreement were: The Israeli-Jordanian agreement states: “. Nothing in this Agreement shall affect in any way the rights, claims and positions of any of the Parties in the peaceful settlement of Palestinian matters, since the provisions of this Agreement shall be dictated exclusively by military considerations” (art. II.2): “The ceasefire demarcation lines set out in Articles V and VI of this Agreement shall be agreed by the Parties, without prejudice to future territorial settlements or border lines or related claims of a Party.” (Art. VI.9)[3] The United Nations has established monitoring and reporting agencies to monitor existing ceasefire lines. In addition, discussions on the implementation of the armistice led to the signing of the Separate Tripartite Declaration of 1950 between the United States, Great Britain and France. They pledged to take action inside and outside the United Nations to prevent violations of borders or ceasefire lines.

He also explained their commitment to peace and stability in the region, their rejection of the use or threat of force, and reaffirmed their opposition to the development of an arms race. These lines lasted until the Six Day War in 1967. In March 1954, Israelis in the settlement began ploughing Ein Gev, 130 dunums of land near the settlement, who belonged to the demilitarized Arab population of Nuqeib, which violated the verbal agreement reached in Samara in 1950 that both sides should retain and treat said land until the problem was resolved. In September 1955, Ariel Sharon`s paratroopers invaded the UN sector of the demilitarized zone. Benny Morris writes that Sharon “did not realize that UN territory was taboo for his men.” [25] On May 28, 1958, Israel reported a shooting incident in the demilitarized zone of Mount Scopus, in which 4 Israeli policemen patrolling the Botanical Garden of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, as well as the United Nations observer sent to free them, were killed by Jordanian gunfire from Issawiya. [26] [27] Israel sent soldiers into Jordanian territory to carry out raids in retaliation for the incursion of armed persons into Israel. [Citation needed] From their positions in the Golan Heights, Syrian forces bombed Israeli settlements in the demilitarized zone, attacked fishing boats on the Kinneret and fired on agricultural workers. [28] Negotiations over the division of Jordanian waters in the early 1950s did not yield results, so Israel had to move forward with its own plan to divert much of these waters to the south of the country. Syria`s attempt to divert the sources of the Banyas River in 1965 provoked Israeli threats and attacks that ended Syrian diversionary efforts. These tensions reached their peak in May 1967, when Egypt responded to a call for help from Syria and moved its army to positions along the Israeli border in Sinai, withdrawing the UN emergency force from the border. Israel`s response was a successful offensive that led to the total conquest of the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank and the Syrian Golan Heights.

This development rendered the Israeli-Syrian GAA of 1949 irrelevant. The legal vacuum was finally filled after the October 1973 war. The “separation of forces” agreement brokered by US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in May 1974 led to a new demarcation line that brought the town of Qunaytra back under Syrian control and has since been monitored by UNDOF, a United Nations special observer force. Armistice talks with Syria began in April 1949 at Gesher B`not Yaacov on the Jordan River,[10] after the conclusion of the other armistice agreements. The agreement with Syria was signed on July 20, 1949. [4] The Chairman of the UNITED Nations Joint Commission, Colonel Garrison B. Coverdale (USA), urged that a consensual AND UN-American solution be found within the Joint Ceasefire Commission. After some hesitation, this procedure was accepted and finally an agreement was reached under which the ceasefire demarcation line was changed to place Wadi Fukin under Jordanian authority, which in turn agreed to transfer uninhabited but fertile territory south of Bethlehem to Israeli control. [9] Syria withdrew its forces from most of the areas it controlled west of the international border, which became demilitarized zones. The Syrian-controlled area, which stood west of the 1923 Palestinian Mandate border and had been allocated to the Jewish state as part of the UN partition plan, covered 66 square kilometers in the Jordan Valley.

[11] These areas were designated as Demilitarized Zones (DMZs) and remained under Syrian control. It was stressed that the ceasefire line “should not be interpreted as having a link with the final territorial agreements”. (Article V) The Israeli-Jordanian GAA was officially signed in Rhodes on April 3, 1949 by Colonel Ahmad Sidqi Bey al-Jundi for the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan and by Reuven Shiloah and Colonel Moshe Dayan on behalf of Israel. The real breakthrough and terms of the deal were actually made during secret talks between King Abdullah and Israeli representatives at the king`s palace in Shuna. The Israeli-Jordanian GAA left a number of issues, such as Jewish access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem`s Old City and Jordanians` access to the south via Bethlehem Street, which were to be resolved in subsequent negotiations. But the failure of secret peace negotiations between Israeli officials and Abdullah in 1949 and 1951, the assassination of the king in July 1951, and the resulting rapid deterioration in Israeli-Jordanian relations blocked the resolution of these outstanding issues. Nevertheless, with many ups and downs, this agreement has been maintained for almost twenty years as a more or less effective framework for relations between the two states. The four agreements also provided for a mechanism for monitoring and dispute settlement. The United Nations managed a ceasefire monitoring organization (UNTSO) composed of a corps of officers from various countries, headquartered in a no man`s land in Jerusalem and empowered to investigate complaints of violations of the AGM.

These complaints were also decided by joint ceasefire commissions, each headed by a senior United Nations official. Complaints of serious violations were forwarded by the parties to the UN Security Council, which based its deliberations on the reports of the UNTSO Chief of Staff. The ceasefire agreements were clear (at Arab insistence) that they did not create permanent borders. The Israeli-Egyptian agreement states: “The ceasefire demarcation line shall in no way be construed as a political or territorial border and shall be demarcated without prejudice to the rights, claims and positions of any of the parties to the ceasefire with regard to the final settlement of the Palestinian question.” [1] The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a series of armistice agreements signed in 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt,[1] Lebanon,[2] Jordan,[3] and Syria[4] to formally end official hostilities in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war and establish armistice lines between Israeli and Jordanian-Iraqi forces, also known as the Green Line. .